A summary I prepared for a friend who's gone to work in Catterick:
Wikipedia has a short summary of the Gododdin here - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gododdin
However, it does say that Votadini is a Brythonic name when I’ve always understood it to be Latin - it does sound and look Latin, and it seems more likely to me that Votadini is the best approximation the Romans could make of Guotodin, or whatever it was. Any conquering culture makes its own impositions and interpretations, as with the English in
The Triumph Tree:
“The native peoples of southern Scotland, the northern Britons, were composing and evidently recording poetry in a language which we shall call Welsh (it is often, more accurately, called Cumbric or northern British), from the middle of the sixth century. This poetry provides our best evidence for the warfare against the incoming English of the east which gradually ate away at British territory and the strength of the Welsh language here. The colonising English, who established control over much of the eastern Borders and Lothian, as well as Dumfriesshire and Galloway, have left records of their poetry in both Old English and Latin, largely from the south-western region. It is their dialect of English which, combined with many other influences, wuld evolve into the Scots of the later medieval period and become one of
“[…] the action it describes belongs to the strife-ridden sixth century, and to the northern British kingdoms in a century which saw gradual loss of territory to English settlers, both through conquest and perhaps through assimilation. [He may be a good poet and scholar, but his prose sucks - G.] Whatever may have been the actual importance of this battle at the time, it became symbolic of the heroic attempt to halt the English conquest, not least because of Aneirin’s poem.
“[…] 13th-century manuscript known as The Book of Aneirin precedes two separate texts, each by a different scribe, each copying a different earlier text. Both texts are obviously incomplete, each contains material not in the other, and there are often considerable differences between the stanzas common to both. […] It is thus unclear whether it was ever intended as a single poem, or whether it is instead a collection of poems based around the same event.” (Preface to The Gododdin, p. 46)
Gododdin’s picked men on shaggy mounts,
Swan-white steeds, war-harness drawn tight,
And in the vanguard attacking the war-host,
Fighting for Eidyn’s forests and mead.
Through Mynyddawg’s war-plan
Shields went spinning,
Blades descended on pallid cheeks.
They loved […] attacking;
They bore no disgrace, men who would not flee.
B-text, stanza 19, trans. Joseph P. Clancy, p. 72
What the Wikipedia article doesn’t make entirely explicit is that this seems to have been a willing suicidal attack - hence the year spent drinking and feasting in Dun Eidyn. Some way of training - though I wonder if the “year” isn’t poetic, symbolic, e.g. they did a year’s worth of drinking in a few nights before setting off. Then again, maybe we should take it at face value. Also, I remain unconvinced by the references to Arthur, which smack to me of wishful thinking. At the least, there's too much baggage associated with the name for one to be anything other than ultra-cautious.
“…it is possible to see the heroic raid by the Gododdin deep into
The Northumbrian expansion northwards was stopped by the Picts at the battle of Nechtansmere on 20 May 685, when the Angle army was destroyed and the king, Ecgfrith, killed. From then on, Northumbrian power never extended north of the Forth. It's been argued that this battle was so significant that it gave Scotland the chance to become Scotland, although the Picts couldn't have known it at the time.
Interestingly, an old pal of my dad's, a native Fifer, made mention to me a while back that while many of his university colleagues had problems with Beowulf on their English course, it gave him no bother at all. The reason? The dialect where he came from was, in his words, "pure East Anglian".